Cocktail Recipes, Spirits, and Local Bars

8 Beverages Pregnant Women Should Be Drinking (Slideshow)

8 Beverages Pregnant Women Should Be Drinking (Slideshow)

Quell your nausea, boost your folate: how to drink healthily during your pregnancy

Thinkstock

According to the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide, a study has shown that ginger, long used in traditional medicine as an anti-nauseant, may beneficial for women who are suffering from morning sickness. The study involved 70 pregnant women who experienced nausea during their pregnancy; the majority of women who added ginger to their diet were less sick less frequently than those who did not.

Ginger Tea

Thinkstock

According to the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide, a study has shown that ginger, long used in traditional medicine as an anti-nauseant, may beneficial for women who are suffering from morning sickness. The study involved 70 pregnant women who experienced nausea during their pregnancy; the majority of women who added ginger to their diet were less sick less frequently than those who did not.

Orange Juice

Thinkstock

You're probably aware thatit's important to increase your iron intake during your pregnancy, but did you know that some foods and drinks may help or hinder your ability to absorb the iron you’re consuming? According to Nutrition During Pregnancy, a report published by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, “Compared with water, orange juice will roughly double the absorption of nonheme iron from a meal. Tea and coffee, on the other hand, will cut the absorption of nonheme iron by more than half when compared with water.” Make sure you go with pasteurized juice, though!

Folate-Rich Smoothies

Thinkstock

In your first trimester, you need to up your folate intake considerably. Folate, or folic acid, is a water-soluble B-vitamin that helps your baby’s nervous system develop. It is great to take folate-rich supplements, but equally important to ingest folate-rich foods. One easy way to get more folates in your diet is through a quick smoothie.

Click here for our Folate-Rich Smoothie Recipe

Peppermint Tea

Thinkstock

In traditional medicine, peppermint tea has been used as a healthful drink for those suffering from morning sickness for a long time. An article published in Phytotherapy Research notes that “in vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential.” In short, a few drops of peppermint oil in your teacup may be great for you and your fetus.

Banana-Yogurt Smoothie

Thinkstock

One large banana contains 4 grams of fiber and about 20 percent of your daily vitamin C and vitamin B6 needs. Vitamin B6 helps regulate your sodium and potassium levels, which can be imbalanced if you’re suffering from morning sickness. Bananas also contain high levels of magnesium and potassium, which are important for maintaining a healthy fluid balance.

According to The Panic-Free Pregnancy by Michael S Broder, “Yogurt contains bacteria that commonly lives in the intestinal tract and can actually be good for you – there is no link of any kind between eating yogurt and problems with pregnancy. In fact, yogurt is high in calcium and (if unflavored) relatively low in simple sugars.”

Water with Lemon

Thinkstock

Lemon’s fresh scent can be a wonderful, healthful anti-nauseant. You can just sniff a lemon half if you're feeling too queasy to keep anything down, but if your morning sickness is really causing you trouble, it's best to stay hydrated by drinking a glass of water wtih some lemon squeezed in.

Coconut Water

Coconut water is kind of amazing: it’s nature’s sports drink without all the added sugars. This drink can help you rehydrate naturally and healthily if you’ve been experiencing some awful morning sickness.

Red Raspberry Leaf Tea

Thinkstock

Midwives have used red raspberry leaf for generations to tone the uterine walls, aid in a smoother delivery, and calm cramping, this tea has been shown to have a relaxant effect on the uterus. However, there have not been many studies on red raspberry leaf, and there is not enough evidence to say that it will definitely help ease your birth. However, it is generally considered safe, so it may do you some good, and it won’t do any harm.


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


No safe level of coffee drinking for pregnant women, study says

Pregnant women should cut out coffee completely to help avoid miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirth, according to a study of international evidence about caffeine and pregnancy.

In contradiction to official guidance in the UK, US and Europe, there is no safe level for caffeine consumption during pregnancy, according to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine.

It analysed more than 1,200 studies of the drug’s effect on pregnancy and found “persuasive confirmation of increased risk … for at least five major negative pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, lower birth weight and/or small for gestational age, childhood acute leukaemia, and childhood overweight and obesity.”

But the study was dismissed by the coffee industry, which urged consumers to stick to the public health advice in the UK, US and Europe that daily caffeine intake equivalent to two cups of medium-strength cups of coffee (200mg) is safe for pregnant women.

A large majority of pregnant women consume caffeine, which is also found in energy drinks and at lower levels in cola, chocolate and tea. Britons drink an estimated 104m cups of coffee per day, up from 70m in 2008.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged studies that suggest excess intake of caffeine may be associated with restricted growth, reduced birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth. It recommends that pregnant women consuming more than 300mg per day should cut back.

The new research by Prof Jack James, of Reykjavik University, found that “current advice … is not consistent with the level of threat indicated by biological plausibility of harm and extensive empirical evidence of actual harm.” It concluded that health recommendations needed “radical revision”.

“The cumulative scientific evidence supports pregnant women and women contemplating pregnancy being advised to avoid caffeine,” the report said.

James said eight out of every nine studies on caffeine and miscarriage reported “significant associations”. Some suggested consumption increased the risk by a third, and others said the risk increased with every extra cup of coffee.

Four out of five observational studies on stillbirth – the loss of an unborn child after 20 weeks – reported increased risk related to caffeine, with the risk increasing by as much as five times in women consuming high doses. Seven out of 10 studies on low birth weight reported a link.

The British Coffee Association, whose members include Costa and Caffè Nero, said James’s study did not establish cause and effect, and it urged pregnant women to stick to existing guidelines.

“The current evidence given by the NHS is based on a comprehensive review of all the scientific evidence available on coffee and health, which shows that pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day or less, and at these levels does not increase the risk of reproductive complications,” said a spokesperson.

“This new study is an observational study, so importantly does not show any direct cause-and-effect link and also is subject to confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and wider dietary issues, which may limit its ability to draw clear conclusions.”

James said causation was likely because of the observed relationships between the amount of caffeine consumed during pregnancy and the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.

He said the research was notable for the “effort that has been invested in the search for and control of potential confounders”. Variables including body mass, age, pregnancy history, alcohol use and exposure to pollutants had all been considered.

Two years ago the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales updated its advice to urge complete abstinence from alcohol during the first three months of pregnancy because it may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

The Food Standards Agency said: “Based on current scientific opinion, the FSA advises pregnant and breastfeeding women not to have more than 200mg of caffeine over the course of a day, which is roughly two mugs of instant coffee or one mug of filter coffee.”


Watch the video: Ρωσία: Μια γυναίκα στο τιμόνι πυρηνικού παγοθραυστικού (January 2022).